## How to find near-duplicate files with Duometer?

06 Nov 2015 - by Paweł Mandera

This tutorial shows how to detect near-duplicates using duometer. I assume here that duometer is installed and can be called using the duometer command. You can check this page for more information about how to install duometer.

If you want to follow the examples from this tutorial you can download this file. In texts/, this archive contains a tiny corpus including excerpts from Alice in Wonderland by Lewis Caroll. Importantly, some of the excerpts are not entirely unique. One of them is repeated twice in the exactly same form, the copy of the second one contains only a part of the original text, and the copy of the third one has some phrases changed. Duometer will help us to identify these duplicate excerpts!

### Quickstart

If you want to just identify duplicates in the folder without customizing any settings you can run:

duometer -i texts/ -o texts-duplicates.txt


After running this command you can examine text-dupicates.txt. It should contain three lines with tab-separated values similar to these:

texts/after-duplicate.txt       texts/after.txt 1.0
texts/hedgehog.txt      texts/hedgehog-part.txt 0.5238095238095238
texts/curioser-nearduplicate.txt        texts/curioser.txt      0.7380952380952381


The first two columns list a pair of potentially duplicate files, and the third column shows a measure of similarity between the two files - the higher the value the more similar the files (where 0.0 is the minimum and 1.0 maximum similarity).

If you examine the pairs, you will see that after.txt and after-duplicate.txt have the exact same content, hedgehog-part.txt contains most of the text from hedgehog.txt, and curioser-nearduplicate.txt contains almost the same text as curioser.txt with a few differences: the word English was substituted with Persian, Christmas with Easter, and the order with stockings and shoes was changed.

By default duometer will list only pairs of documents for which similarity value is at least 0.2 but it is for you to decide what is the threshold for considering two files to be duplicates.

### Alternative ways of specifying input

Alternatively, you can look for duplicates across two different directories. For illustration, you can create a second directory named texts-2/ and copy curioser-nearduplicate.txt to that directory giving it a new name, curioser-nearduplicate-2.txt.

You can now specify two input directories for duometer:

duometer -i texts -i texts-2 -o texts-texts-2-duplicates.txt


If you now look at texts-texts-2-duplicates.txt you will find two lines there: one listing curioser-nearduplicate-2.txt as an exact duplicate of curioser-nearduplicate.txt and the second one as a near-duplicate of curioser.txt.

The third way in which you can specify input for duometer is to list files which should be considered when looking for duplicate pairs. Path to each file should be put on a new line. For example, you can create a file list.txt like this:

texts/after.txt
texts/hedgehog.txt
texts/hedgehog-part.txt
texts/curioser.txt
texts-2/curioser-nearduplicate-2.txt


and then run:

duometer -i list.txt -o list-duplicates.txt


### Further information

This tutorial does not cover more advanced settings. Please run duometer --help for more options.